Resumen breve sobre el tema fundación de un banco, Offshore Bank License, Bank License Cayman Islands, Offshore Bank Belize, Offshore Bank License St. Vincent,Bank License Germany, Bank Liechtenstein, Bank License Germany
   

  Resumen breve sobre el tema fundación de un banco

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Resumen breve sobre el tema fundación de un banco

 

Resumen breve sobre el tema fundación de un banco

1.    Definiciones de fundamentos jurídicos: Banco

El derecho bancario internacional es una materia jurídica extremadamente compleja. De forma simplificada se puede puntualizar como sigue: Sociedades de prestaciones de servicios financieros en el sentido de los institutos de crédito de depósitoss, que están sujetos a la regulación e inspección del Banco Central respectivo y/o a otras autoridades de inspección, disponiendo de una autorización correspondiente para ofrecer a terceros las prestaciones de servicio financieras correspondientes, se califican en el sentido de la palabra como “Banco”. Éstos pueden ofrecer prestaciones de servicios bancarios a personas del país naturales y jurídicas y, por lo regular, también a “personas” fuera del Estado de la sede del banco (aquí, si bien, pueden existir limitaciones en el derecho nacional del “otro Estado”).

Las condiciones previas respectivas para el permiso se regulan en las leyes de prestaciones de servicio financieras/leyes bancarias de los países. En la mayoría de los Estados es necesaria una dotación de capital propio correspondiente (por ejemplo, suiza 5 millones CHF, USA 5 millones USD y 10 millones USD de depósito de garantía en la FED, Alemania unos. 5 millones de Euros, Cayman Island 400.000,00 CI$ etc.). Además, la mayoría de las leyes bancarias regulan las condiciones previas para la gestión del banco – la denominada “capacitación profesional” – (formación profesional o estudio superior en el sector bancario, experiencia de dirección en el nivel bancario, certificado de antecedentes penales intachable, solvencia etc.), la existencia de una actividad mercantil cualificada, las condiciones comerciales generales y las condiciones de auditoría y formación del balance.

2.    Estado de la sede del banco y Estados oferentes

Por favor, tenga en cuenta que en sociedades de prestaciones de servicios financieros y bancos sirve el derecho del estado de la sede del banco Y el derecho del “Estado oferente”, o sea, el derecho del país - o de los países – donde se ofrece/solicita. Una excepción es el Espacio Económico Europeo: Un banco en el Espacio Económico Europeo podrá ofrecer sus prestaciones de servicios en todos los demás países del Espacio Económico Europeo, sin un procedimiento nuevo de autorización o permiso.

En todos los demás casos servirá en principio lo siguiente:

Son comparables las regulaciones estatales y/o leyes bancarias con las del país oferente y existe una colaboración, que está funcionando, entre las autoridades de inspección de estos estados, entonces el banco extranjero, por lo regular, podrá solicitar/ofrecer sus prestaciones de servicios. Será necesario, por lo regular, solamente un anuncio de la actividad ante las autoridades de inspección del Estado oferente.

3.    Factores necesarios para el procedimiento de autorización

Para la autorización de un banco son competentes las autoridades de regulación/superintendencias bancarias de los países. Aquí la mayoría de los países tienen regulaciones comparables en el procedimiento de autorización estatal y condiciones previas respecto al personal:

-Por lo regular son necesarios dos gerentes con una ciaificación personal y profesional según las leyes bancarias de bancos. Como mínimo un gerente deberá tener su domicilio común en el Estado de la sede del banco. Si se desea, nuestro bufete podrá ayudarles en la búsqueda de personal adecuado. Las condiciones profesionales previas son por lo regular: Estudio superior o formación profesional en el sistema bancario, experiencia de varios años y en la dirección de un banco

-Deberán cumplirse las regulaciones Basel II/ III. Por consiguiente, en la mayoría de los casos es necesaria la vinculación a una sociedad independiente, por ejemplo, Moodys. Las tasas anuales para las sociedades revisoras de cuentas comprenden de 36.000 a 40.000 USD.

-Fondos de aseguramiento de depósitos: En la mayoría de los países la entrada en los fondos de seguridad de depósitos es voluntaria y naturalmente de sentido

-Sede Comercial ordinaria en el Estado de la sede del banco: Como mínimo es necesaria una oficina y un empleado. Un mero “Registered Office” no es suficiente en ninguno de los casos, tampoco en un mero banco online

-Sociedad del banco y capital fundacional: Por lo regular la forma jurídica de la Sociedad Anónima o la Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada, en muchos países también la forma jurídica de la “Limited”. El capital de depósito mínimo, por lo regular, deberá estar liberado en la cuenta de la sociedad. Los bancos en las Cayman Islands necesitan actualmente el capital fundacional más bajo con 400.000,00 CI$  (CI$= Dólares de Cayman Islands, unos 400.000 Euros)

-Vinculación a SWIFT/IBAN: Es necesario como mínimo una cita en SWIFT. Se debe partir de la base de que todo banco necesita para el servicio de pago internacional un código SWIFT y/o IBAN

-Solicitud de permiso: La solicitud de permiso es muy amplia y deberá presentarse ante las autoridades de inspección competentes. Será necesaria como mínimo una audiencia ante las autoridades de inspección competentes.

- Sistema Online Banking e interfaces: En sí hoy día necesita todo banco un sistema Online-Banking, de tal manera que los clientes de los bancos puedan gestionar sus negocios bancarios por Internet. Los costes para un sistema semejante se rigen según oferente y “módulos” y comprenden de 60.000 ,00 a 120.000,00 euros. Nuestro bufete puede mediar para oferentes correspondientes.

4.    Sociedad de Prestaciones de Servicios Financieros Neuseeland (Nueva Zelanda) con permiso para prestaciones de servicios bancarios

Una Sociedad de Prestaciones de Servicios Financieros Neuseeland (Nueva Zelanda) con permiso para negocios bancarios puede ofrecer servicios bancarios internacionalmente, tanto para personas privadas como también para empresas por vía Internet, sin limitaciones de la cifra de clientes, del importe de los depósitos o de la cifra de las monedas. Dentro del marco de la constelación, si bien, deberán observarse las leyes de los países, por ejemplo, la Ley Bancaria alemana (KWG).

En la Sociedad de Prestaciones de Servicios Financieros Neuseeland (Nueva Zelanda) no se trata de una entidad financiera que está sujeta a la supervisión y regulación de las autoridades competentes o del Banco Central del país. Por consiguiente, son realizables solamente cuentas de bancos corresponsales, sin SWIFT/IBAN propio, sin toma de préstamo en el Banco Central. Una Sociedad de Prestaciones de Servicios Financieros Neuseeland (Nueva Zelanda), por lo tanto, no puede ofrecer prestaciones de servicios tan fácilmente a personas en Estados terceros (por ejemplo, Espacio Económico Europeo). Existen posibilidades de solución que nosotros les exponemos gustosamente.

La sociedad puede poner a disposición casi todas las prestaciones de servicios que se ofrecen también por un banco con licencia A, si bien, en el nombre no deberá llevarse la palabra “Banco”. Si bien, ampliaciones como “Corp. de Banco” o “Grupo Bancario” estarán permitidas. A las actividades de un banco Online podrán pertenecer las siguientes prestaciones de servicio, pero no estarán limitadas a las mismas:

  • Negocios de depósitos y otorgamiento de préstamos
  • Servicio de tarjetas de débito y tarjetas de crédito
  • Emisión de fianzas financieras e instrumentos financieros
  • Servicio en el sector del “Cash Management”
  • Cuentas corrientes
  • Cuentas de cheques
  • Cuentas de ahorro
  • Depósitos a término
  • Entrega de CDs
  • Transferencias bancarias
  • Gestión de pago
  • Gestión de fondos

Provision of Financial Services - Formation of a Bank - Bank License

We form companies with a bank for our clients - and/or financial services license, i.e. asset management companies, primarily in the following countries:

·    Sweden (Swedish Credit Union)

·    Panama (Panama AG with Financial Services License)

Services Bank License- Offshore Bank License:

  • Incorporation of the company of the bank
  • Apply for admission to hold an A-licence
  • Setup of a place of business at the jurisdiction of your bank
  • Recruiting of fit & proper personnel for the management of the bank according to international banking law
  • Connecting to a rating agency (Rating, Basel II), e.g. Moodys, S&P
  • Connection to Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT, appointments at SWIFT), Swift-Code and IBAN
  • Connection to deposit guarantee fund
  • Banking Law (general terms and conditions of the bank, credit agreements, due diligence, compliance, etc.)
  • Representative offices or branches in other countries
  • Tax planning and routing of dividends e.g. by setting up a holding

 General Information with regard to Bank Licensing, Provision of Financial Services, Asset Management Companies

The licensing prerequisites differ greatly from country to country, in particular with regard to required capital stock of the bank and/or asset management company. The basis is, as a rule, the installation of a stock corporation according the respective laws of the country in which the company is registered, in addition the installation of an ordinary company seat in the country in which the company is registered. This stock corporation applies for a financial service provider and/or bank license. An excellent alternative can be a New Zealand Bank. A New Zealand Online Bank (correct term: New Zealand financial service provider with a banking license) both private persons and companies can offer bank services via the Internet without any restriction on customer numbers, deposit amounts or the number of currencies.

The fees for the foundation of a bank and/or asset management company are based on the country in which the entity is registered and the type of services. To learn more please refer to the individual web pages.

Tax Structure

In addition, in the formation of a bank or asset management company tax structuring plays an important role. We take over tax structuring within the scope of the "affiliated companies", for example foreign parent company and domestic subsidiary, formation of a foreign holding to collect domestic dividends exempt from taxes and many more.

The Correspondent Bank (Correspondent Bank Account)

We are the only provider in Europe to provide a connection to correspondent banks in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Singapore or UAE.

Banking Software Online Banking

We offer our clients NexorOne online banking software for example: within the scope of the formation of a New Zealand financial services provider company with a license for banking services, installation of an asset management company and/or Swedish Credit Union. The full version of the software provides complete online banking services, it is however only available in English.

-Bank License USA and Switzerland:

License fees, attorney fees: approx. 150,000.00 Euro/ USD

Capital Stock: approx. 5 Mil USD/CHF, depending on the country in which the company is registered. USA: 10 Mil. USD at the FED.

The formation of a US INC and/or Swiss AG as the bank company with the capital stock of the bank is required.

The directors/general manager must have an education in banking  (for example: banker) and experience in the management of a bank. A nominee director is not possible, accordingly the client would have to move his principal residence to the country in which the company is registered and/or hire a Director who resides in the country in which the company is registered. Further license requirements are similar to those in Germany, this includes among other things a viable business plan, profit and loss calculation for the first three years, General Terms and Conditions of the bank according to the statutory provisions, becoming a member of the investment guarantee funds, required insurances etc.

In addition to the basic foundation and license fees, the following costs can also be relevant:

· Preparation of the General Terms and Conditions (T&Cs), agreements between customers and bank, credit agreements

· Homepage of the bank, Online-Banking-System

· SWIFT Code, IBAN, international payment transactions, electronic communication channels and interfaces

· Connection to credit card providers, Visa-MasterCard etc.

-Securities Brokerage Bank/Investment Bank/ Full Service Bank Germany:

The basis is the German Banking Act Section 32 Article. 1 et seqq. [KWG, German Banking Act]. We accompany our clients from conception to the licensing of the bank (Federal Financial Supervisory Authority, Bafin). The fees are based on the "type of financial services" and the required services we provide. Accordingly we provide the formation of "the company of the bank", as a rule a German AG [Inc.], the provision of banking software and "tax optimization" measures.

In addition to the basic foundation and license fees, the following costs can also be relevant:

· Preparation of the General Terms and Conditions (T&Cs), agreements between customers and bank, credit agreements

· Homepage of the bank, Online-Banking-System

· SWIFT Code, IBAN, international payment transactions, electronic communication channels and interfaces

· Connection to credit card providers, Visa-MasterCard etc.

-Financial Service Panama:

We offer you the company form of a Panama S.A. with a license to collect and administer (invest) customer assets.
With this service we make it possible for you to offer classic asset management or financial services without banking hours and teller's windows, with all licenses for trustee management of client moneys.

-Swiss Credit Union:

A Swedish Credit Union can legally offer services in the EU, which can normally only be offered by fully licensed banks, such as accepting deposits, making loans, etc., as long as these services are provided exclusively to members of the Credit Union. A potential customer can become a member automatically, if he/she wants to open an account, applies for a loan or take advantage of any other service provided by the Credit Union. However the legal situation has changed in Sweden due to EU level provisions: Members of a Swedish Credit Union must now belong to one specific profession / group of professions and may only be natural persons.

-New Zealand Financial Service Company with Bank Services License

A New Zealand financial services company with license for bank services can offer services to private persons and companies globally without restrictions on the number of clients, the deposit amounts or the number of currencies. However the laws of countries, in particular the German Banking Act [Kreditwesengesetz (KWG)], must be observed under this constellation.

The New Zealand Bank can provide almost all services, which can be offered by banks with A License, however the word „Bank“ may not be apart of the name. The service activities of a financial company are as follows, but are not restricted to the same:

  • Deposits and Loans
  • Debit Cards and Credit Cards Services
  • Issuance of Financial Guarantees and Financial Instruments
  • Service in the Area of Cash Management
  • Bank Accounts
  • Check Accounts
  • Saving Accounts
  • Time Deposit Account
  • Issuance of CDs
  • Bank Transfers
  • Payment Processing
  • Fund Management
  • Investment Marketing

The company is not subject to the provisions regarding the creation of capital reserves. Directors and shareholders can have any nationality their residence can be in any country.

-Offshore-Banks Belize and Cayman Islands

Offshore Bank Cayman Islands

In particular, the Cayman Island is an interesting location for the formation of a bank with an A license. The stock capital is approx CI$400,000. The bank acts as a Universal Bank with its own IBAN, SWIFT Code etc. and may offer all bank services. First a stock corporation is formed on the Cayman Islands as a company of the bank. This stock corporation then applies for a bank license from the government agency. A qualified business operation is required on the Cayman Islands, a fully furnished office with at least one employee. An office building with "Teller Windows" can be opened. It is true that the bank cannot act as a bank in Germany in terms of a German bank (compare German Banking Act [KWG]), however such bank is very attractive for international transactions with natural persons or legal entities from other countries. Clients, that form this type of bank, usually have clients/investors from Middle America, Russia etc. With regard to the management of the bank one person is required, with a recognized banking education and experience in the banking field. A Nominee solution is not possible. The general manager of the bank must be a resident of the Cayman Islands. Such that either the client or a representative moves his/her primary residence to the Cayman Islands or hires a General Manager who resides in the Cayman Islands. The licensing process takes approx. 3 months. The fees are based on the services and are at least 120,000.00 Euro plus state fees. We can create an Internet presence with online banking software for the bank. The banking software costs between 14,000.00 and 65,000.00 Euro, depending on functionality. We will provide a corresponding provider. Office space can be selected in advance; we will provide you with a Cayman Islands real estate agent. Our German attorney can accompany you to the Cayman Islands in exchange for commensurate fees.

Offshore Bank Formation Belize 

We can realize bank formation (A-License) in Belize by means of our cooperation law firm in Belize. Information can be requested from the competent government agencies / central bank:

BELIZE

Central Bank of Belize
http://www.centralbank.org.bz/

Attorney General Ministry
http://www.belizelaw.org/

In this case a stock corporation with a place of business in Belize is formed as the company of the bank. The formation fees are based on the services, they amount to approx. 70,000.00 Euro plus government fees. Upon request we can provide full services in collaboration with the cooperation law firm located in the country in which the company is registered:

 -Formation of the company, entry into the commercial registry, domiciliation, opening of a bank account

-Bank license application, submission of all applications to the competent authorities, direct communication with the competent government agencies

-Homepage of the Bank

-Online Banking Software

-Pre-selection of suitable offices space

-Visa application, residence permit

 

 

 
 
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